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Messages - adamzs

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Hi Huy,

Let me add a slight clarification to the detailed response Jinyan provided: Although Hazus does not have storm-surge specific fragility and loss functions, the hurricane technical manual describes that the functions developed for flood should be used for this purpose. We have those available and they are applied in the wind+storm surge example.
In other words, as long as you have a Peak Inundation Height intensity measure available, you can use the auto-population script in the example to apply the Hazus fragilities and estimate damage and losses from storm surge.

Another relevant detail is the combination of wind and inundation losses. It is important to combine these without double counting. We use the combination methodology described in the Hazus Hurricane Technical Manual and this process is automatically performed in the background.

I hope this helps, let me know if you have any questions.


Regional Hazard Simulation (R2D, rWhale) / Re: E2MDOFBuildingResponse
« on: March 30, 2023, 12:28:25 AM »
Hi Jia,

Hazus MH EQ uses capacity curves to calculate a characteristic drift and acceleration for a building. The capacity curve method is explained in section 5.4.1. Example 2 in R2D uses the MDOF_LU model instead of the capacity curve method to obtain peak roof drift and peak roof acceleration for each building in a portfolio. Then, these values are used as demands for fragility functions based on section 5.4.2 of the Hazus MH EQ manual. Note that structural and drift-sensitive nonstructural fragilities use drift ratio as demand and acceleration-sensitive nonstructural fragilities use acceleration as demand. See, for example, columns 4-7 in Table 5-12 for structural fragility curve parameters to get the median drift ratio for each damage state. Hazus uses a simple probabilistic model for these capacities. For example, a logarithmic standard deviation of 0.4 is used for all structural fragility curves (see Page 5-39 in the manual).

Hazus also has a special set of equivalent PGA-based fragility curves described in section 5.4.3. These were developed to allow efficient computations for components of utility and transportation systems, but are often used for regular building stock in the literature. The PID and PFA based curves are preferred over these if sufficient information is available to estimate those response quantities.

As for your question about running the same ground motion for all buildings, you would need to have the same ground motion assigned to all grid points. The simplest way to achieve this is to set the Number of neighbors to 1 and remove all but one grid points from the Event grid. Given a grid with only one point, the simulation engine will assign the same point (and the same ground motion) to every building. I assume you did something similar by assigning the same ground motion record to six grid points. That should also work fine.
The Number of samples in HTA controls how many realizations of ground motions (at each grid point) are considered in the analysis. This does not affect which ground motions are assigned to which building.

You mentioned that you received an error message when the number of neighbors and samples are both set to 1. Could you share the error message with us? This functionality should be supported and we are interested in reproducing and fixing this error.

Could you elaborate on what you see in the output that does not seem realistic?


Regional Hazard Simulation (R2D, rWhale) / Re: E2MDOFBuildingResponse
« on: March 27, 2023, 10:18:25 AM »
Hi Jia,

Example 2 uses the MDOF_LU tool to generate an idealized finite element model for each building and obtain the peak floor acceleration (PFA) and peak interstory drift ratio (PID) at each floor. The tool was developed by Prof. Xinzheng Lu's research group.

The capabilities are described to some extent in the appendix of this publication: .

You can also take a look at the source code here:
Most assumptions are coded into the Building.cpp and HazusSAM_Generator.cpp files.

Now, to answer your specific questions:

1, Take a look at the CalcBldgPara function in HazusSAM_Generator.cpp. The four code levels are enumerated as integers ranging from 0 to 3 and you'll see how the Zone, Year of Construction, and Structure Type are used to obtain the design level. The developers aimed to implement the logic presented in the Hazus Earthquake Model; please let us know if you experience any errors in their implementation.

2, The damage is stored in the DM_*.csv file (where * is replaced by the range of building IDs). Example 2 uses the fragility functions from the Hazus Earthquake Model to simulate damages; this yields Damage States ranging from 0 to 4. 0 corresponds to no damage, while 1-2-3-4 corresponds to slight, moderate, extensive, and complete, just like you described in your question. Damage state 4 has two mutually exclusive sub-states (see some clarification on this in the end*), complete damage and collapse. Following the Hazus methodology, complete damage does not yield injuries, while collapse results in injuries and fatalities. Complete damage is encoded as DS 4_1, while collapse is encoded as DS 4_2.
You shall see the likelihood of observing each damage state in the structural and non-structural components of each building. If you are looking for each damage realization, you'll need to check the "Output EDP, DM, DV, every sampling realization" in the General Information (GI) panel of R2D (see here: Afterward, you'll see a realizations.hdf5 file among the results that provides a specific damage state for each realization for each building. Let me know if you need more information on how to extract the information from this file.

3, PID in the EDP file refers to Peak Interstory Drift Ratio. As far as I can tell, this is in line with the PBE tool training video and has no unit.

Let me know if you have further questions.


* Additional information on mutually exclusive damage states:
Currently, R2D uses Pelicun 2.6 to simulate damage and loss. This earlier version of Pelicun followed the FEMA P-58 naming convention and assigned Damage State Groups (DSG) to fragility functions and each DSG could have one or more Damage States in it. This led to the DS_X_Y type of identification where X refers to the DSG and Y refers to the DS.
For the sake of clarity, with Pelicun 3, I updated this naming convention using Limit States instead of DSG. So, the results of an analysis performed by Pelicun 3 will show LS_X to identify the limit states or DS_Y to identify the damage states. I wanted to mention this detail here because Pelicun 3 will be available in R2D this April and it will completely replace Pelicun 2.6 in the near future.

Performance Based Engineering (PBE) / Re: Height factor premiums
« on: March 23, 2023, 03:31:20 PM »
Hi Hannah,

Thanks for letting us know that you would appreciate such a feature in PBE. In order to maintain the generality of the framework, I would implement this as a location-specific repair cost adjustment factor. In a building, locations directly map to stories, so you'd be able to assign a factor for each story, or a range of stories as you see in the excerpt from the P58 documentation.

This seems straightforward to implement and I added it to my plans for the next minor release that is due in the end of April.


Damage & Loss (PELICUN) / Re: Consequence functions
« on: January 19, 2023, 07:48:53 PM »
Hi Navid,

The consequence models for unsafe placards and injuries are not yet implemented in Pelicun 3.

As for unsafe placards, in our experience, there is consensus in both the researcher and practitioner community that the current methodology in FEMA P58 provides unrealistic estimates. A new, more complex methodology is developed by the ATC 138 project and will be released in the near future. At that point, we plan to implement a methodology in Pelicun that supports both the old and the new approach to calculating unsafe placards to support benchmarking and evaluation of the impact of changes.
The current methodology is available in Pelicun 2.6, but let us know if you found having it available in Pelicun 3 useful for your work. If we have sufficient interest in the current method, we can increase its priority and get it implemented before the ATC 138 project concludes.

As for injuries, we are developing an enhanced version of the methodology in Pelicun 2. We have the supporting datasets already available in Pelicun 3, but the implementation of the methodology is in progress. We plan to have injury calculations available by July 2023.

Let me know if you have further questions.


Performance Based Engineering (PBE) / Re: Dakota Error Debugging
« on: October 25, 2022, 08:57:41 PM »
Thanks for sharing that info, Hannah!

Performance Based Engineering (PBE) / Re: Fragility Database export
« on: October 20, 2022, 02:23:51 AM »
Hi Nikoch,

If you're interested in the database under PBE 3.0, you can find it as part of pelicun, here:
The fragility_DB_FEMA_P58_2nd CSV and JSON files have the fragility function data; and the bldg_repair, bldg_injury, and bldg_redtag files have the consequence function data.

Let me know if you are interested in the old version of the data we used under PBE 2.x and I am happy to send that to you.


Performance Based Engineering (PBE) / Re: Fragility Database export
« on: October 18, 2022, 08:45:03 PM »
Hi Nikoch,

I've just tested the exporting feature with the P-58 database on versions 2.2.2 and 3.0.0 - both work fine for me on Windows 10.

So, let's explore what could go wrong on your machine. When clicking the export button, you need to select a destination folder. I usually create a folder for this purpose, but you could simply select one of the existing folders on your hard drive. It does not need to be a special path.

Are you running in a Windows or macOS environment?

Do the examples run fine within PBE? If yes, that confirms that the tool has access to the databases.

Depending on your answers to the above, I'll have more questions.


Hi Anne,

sorry for joining this conversation a little late.

When I suggested the uq module, I meant the uq module of Pelicun. That supports truncated distributions out of the box.

The rejection sampling that Sang-ri suggested works for a single variable. It is somewhat inconvenient that you need a larger sample to make sure you have enough data left after rejecting the points outside your domain of interest, but that is not a big issue. However, when you want a correlated multivariate truncated distribution, rejections can lead to a very different correlation structure than what you get if you define them using a Gaussian copula between the truncated marginals. Neither solution is 'correct', but the two solutions are different.

Re Frank's question, I think lower and upper limits on any random variable could be useful to have in quoFEM.


Regional Hazard Simulation (R2D, rWhale) / Re: Questions for R2D program
« on: September 20, 2022, 05:31:03 PM »
Hi Sejin,

Can you provide some information on the tools you typically use for these calculations?

How do you evaluate the external and internal pressure on the building? For example, is it a result of an advanced CFD analysis, or you use some kind of an approximate solution that considers a wind environment and a building archetype?

How do you ev aluate the resistance of the building component? Is it a deterministic or a probabilistic analysis?

What happens to the components that become windborne? Do you want to keep track of them afterward?

I need this information to be able to answer your question on how to implement these features in R2D.


Regional Hazard Simulation (R2D, rWhale) / Re: Questions for R2D program
« on: September 12, 2022, 06:57:38 PM »
Hi Sejin,

The currently available modules consider wind-borne debris using the approach from HAZUS: the debris environment is characterized for every building (one of four possibilities), and the (building level) damage state at any given wind speed is influenced by the selected environment. This is a crude but efficient approach that does not take advantage of any local simulation.

You can certainly:
- Introduce more sophisticated archetypes that better represent the aerodynamic characteristics of various buildings and debris environments.
- Introduce a more sophisticated mapping of available information on the built environment to debris environment classes
- Add a debris trajectory module to R2D.

The first two options are relatively straightforward. The complexity of the last one depends on the methodology you plan to use to model the creation (i.e. after buildings or the environment are damaged) and path of debris in the area. If you can tell us a bit more about that methodology, I can give you more information about the complexity of implementing it in our backend and in R2D.


Hi Karen,

Thanks for reaching out to us. I've checked the JSON file you attached, and I did not find any errors in it.

Can you share your auto-population file as well? I suspect that there might be an issue with linking the JSON fragilities with specific buildings. (If the file includes sensitive information that you would not like to share publicly at this point, please feel free to share it in a private message.)


Damage & Loss (PELICUN) / Re: Uncertainty in consequence models
« on: June 01, 2022, 05:23:48 PM »
Hi Andrés,

Sounds good! Don't hesitate to reach out if you have any questions or run into issues.


Damage & Loss (PELICUN) / Re: EDP keys
« on: June 01, 2022, 02:24:16 AM »
I forgot to mention in my previous message that I've made a new release (v3.1.b7) to make these changes immediately available for you to use.

Damage & Loss (PELICUN) / Re: EDP keys
« on: June 01, 2022, 02:19:51 AM »
Hi Pooya,

Thanks for drawing my attention to this issue. I've added a few demand types so that everything listed in the fragility database is now supported by Pelicun. Specifically, I've added these new types:

* Peak Link Rotation Angle - LR
* Peak Link Beam Chord Rotation - LBR
* Peak Floor Displacement - PFD
* Peak Effective Drift Ratio - EDR

Let me know if there is any other demand type you would find useful to have in Pelicun.


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